Questions on Negotiable Instrument Act


The types of endorsement in bankinger to whom the cheque is crossed specially may again cross it especially to another banker, his agent, for collection. If the endorsement is made on behalf of a company which is in liquidation, and official receiver is appointed thereof, the endorsement will be. Similarly an agent can endorse the instrument for his principal by writing on behalf of, or per pro, for and on behalf of. The negotiation must be complete before the payment of the instrument. If the holders are joint, the negotiation can be complete only if both the holders put their signature with an intent of negotiation.


# By usage – Bank notes, bank drafts, share warrants, bearer debentures, dividend warrants, scripts and treasury bills. This is the general principle relating to transfer of property is that no one can become the owner of any property unless he purchases it from the true owner or with his authority. If your employer provides direct deposit, you may wish to reap the benefits of it. Direct deposit is handy – you don’t should be constantly working to the financial institution or credit score union to deposit your paychecks. You also don’t have to worry about your checks getting lost or stolen.

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A promissory note is a promise in writing by a person to pay a sum of money to a specified person or to his order. Documents of a certain type, used in commercial transactions and monetary dealings, are called Negotiable instruments. The word ‘negotiable’ means transferable from one person to another and the term ‘instrument’ means ‘any written doc. By which a right is created in favor of some person.’ Thus, the negotiable instrument is a doc.

An endorsement is supposed to be blank or general endorsement when the endorser puts his unmistakable just on the instrument and doesn’t compose the name of anybody to whom or to whose request the installment is to be made. Efiling Income Tax Returns is made easy with Clear platform. Just upload your form 16, claim your deductions and get your acknowledgment number online. You can efile income tax return on your income from salary, house property, capital gains, business & profession and income from other sources. Further you can also file TDS returns, generate Form-16, use our Tax Calculator software, claim HRA, check refund status and generate rent receipts for Income Tax Filing. As per a recent circular, up to INR 10,000 along with interest at the rate of 6%-9% would have to be paid by an individual for cheques being dishonored.

A demand promissory note becomes time barred on expiry of 3 years from the date it bears. Promise to pay money only – If the instrument contains a promise to pay something in addition money, it cannot be a promissory note. Main purpose of negotiable instruments is to avoid the carriage of higher amount of money and to reducing the risk of theft; robbery etc. Processing time varies, however it is usually no various business days. However, if the amount of the check is greater than the funds in the verify writer’s account, the verify might bounce.

I. Find out the type of instrument and the reason?

These are the instruments which are broadly used for international trade. These instruments are freely transferable by one person to another person any number of times. Cheque is a document for easy payment but payment can only be made on demand and a cheque is valid only for 3months. There is a particular form of cheque and it is an order to pay.

  • It must contain an order to pay and not a promise or request.
  • It contains an unconditional promise by maker to pay the payee.
  • The person who effects an endorsement is called an ‘endorser’, and the person to whom negotiable instrument is transferred by endorsement is called the ‘endorsee’.

The signature or account information included on the back of a check acknowledges that the intended recipient received the document and deposited it. The person liable on the hill must pay by drawing a cheque in the name of the holder B. If he makes the payment to C on C’s own account, he will still be liable to B, the endorser; Hence C cannot endorse the bill further in his own name. The cheque acts as a written order made by the drawer to the drawee to pay the payee the amount of money specified on the cheque.

Banking Law – Endorsement and its types

Endorsement must be completed by the delivery of possession of the instrument. The delivery of possession of the instrument with intention of passing the property to endorsee is important. It is worth mentioning that the delivery of possession must be made by the endorser himself or by someone on his behalf. Person to whom on to whose order the instrument is payable.


A financial institution endorsement is a guarantee by a financial institution confirming that it’ll uphold a verify or other negotiable instrument, similar to a banker’s acceptance, from certainly one of its clients. This assures any third-get together that the financial institution will back the obligations of the creator of the instrument within the occasion the creator can’t make fee. The complete policy wording or contract is not affected, only the desired new phrases, subsequently the endorsement becomes an add-on to the coverage and ought to be saved with the original doc. Common financial institution endorsements include banker’s acceptances and letters of credit score. Special endorsements enable a payee to make a check payable to another person. In this case, the verify may be cashed and paid to the required individual.


Text is on the market under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By utilizing this site, you comply with the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. A political endorsement is a public declaration of 1’s private or group’s support of a candidate for elected office.

The Bill also inserts a provision for allowing the court to order for an interim compensation to people whose cheques have bounced due to a dishonouring party (individuals/entities at fault). Such interim compensation won’t exceed 20 percent of the total cheque value. On the other side, cheques are comparatively a slow method of payment and might take some time to be processed. An order cheque is a cheque where only the person or party in whose name the cheque has been drawn, can withdraw the cash. But, she has written “Account Payee Only” or “Not Negotiable” and crossed the cheque. In this article we will discuss about, what is Negotiable Bill of Lading, Why endorsement is required, who should endorse and what are the endorsements required.

In other words, where the endorser puts his signature under such writing which makes the transfer of title subject to fulfillment of some conditions of the happening of some events, it is a conditional endorsement. Section 16 of the Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881 says that where the endorser just puts his signature without specifying the endorsee, the endorsement is said to be in blank. The effect of such an endorsement is to render the instrument payable to bearer. The holder of a negotiable instrument may sign his or her name on the back of that instrument, which replicates the transfer of title or ownership of that negotiable instrument, this process is termed as an endorsement.

Endorsing cheques

When the endorser restricts further negotiation of instrument. For example if it is written that ‘Pay to Mr. Kuber only’. When the person signs on the back of the instrument to transfer his interest, it is known as an endorsement.

“in full”

Thus, “Pay X or order, notice of dishonour waived” is a facultative endorsement. When the endorser expressly excludes his own liability on the negotiable instrument to the endorsee or any subsequent holder in case of dishonour of the instrument, the endorsement is known as ‘sans recourse’ endorsement. If the endorser signs his name only and does not specify the name of the endorsee, the endorsement is said to be in blank Sec. 16. The effect of a blank endorsement is to convert the order instrument into bearer instrument (Sec. 54), which may be transferred merely by delivery. Endorsement basically provides a transfer of property to the other individual or the legal entity. is the mode of negotiating the Negotiable Instrument. It is derived from the Latin term ‘en’ means ‘upon’ and ‘dorsum’, ‘the back’. In case holder of instrument is a partnership firm, the authorized person or partner should sign the instrument in his capacity and on behalf of partnership firm. If the endorsement is made by an illiterate person, it must be witnessed by one literate person. The above mentioned endorsements exclude the right of Z to negotiate further.

What Is an Insurance Endorsement? –

What Is an Insurance Endorsement?.

Posted: Fri, 14 Oct 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

In case of dispute, C will have to return the cheque or pay equivalent in money to A, the true owner of the cheque. C can not also pass a good title to any one else, say to D. Endorsement is the process of legally transferring ownership of a negotiable instrument to a third party by signing it, typically on the backside.